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Clinical Efficacy of a West African Sorghum bicolor-Based Traditional Herbal Preparation Jobelyn Shows Increased Hemoglobin and CD4 + T-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV + Patients

This is the first controlled study conducted to evaluate efficacy of Jobelyn on immune status in HIV + patients. The data suggest that consumption of Jobelyn contributed to improved hemoglobin levels and increased CD4 + T-cell counts in Nigerian HIV + patients. Further studies are needed to examine similar effects in other populations, and to elaborate on the underlying mechanisms, specifically, whether the consumption of Jobelyn supported multiple aspects of bone marrow function.


West African Sorghum bicolor Leaf Sheaths Have Anti-Inflammatory and Immune-Modulating Properties In Vitro

Both aqueous and nonaqueous compounds contributed to reduced reactive oxygen species formation by inflammatory PMN cells, and reduced the migration of these cells in response to the inflammatory chemoattractant leukotriene B4. Distinct effects were seen on lymphocyte and monocyte subsets in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The aqueous extract of SBLS triggered robust upregulation of the CD69 activation marker on CD3 - CD56 + natural killer (NK) cells, whereas the ethanol extract of SBLS triggered similar upregulation of CD69 on CD3 + CD56 + NKT cells, CD3 + T lymphocytes, and monocytes. This was accompanied by many-fold increases in the chemokines RANTES/CCL5, Mip-1a/CCL3, and MIP-1b/CCL4. Both aqueous and nonaqueous compounds contribute to anti-inflammatory effects, combined with multiple effects on immune cell activation status.


Antidepressant-like Property of Jobelyn ® , an African Unique Herbal Formulation in Mice

Jobelyn ® has antidepressant-like activity, which may be related to the stimulation of serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways. The ability of Jobelyn ® to delay the onset of immobility and to prolong the struggling time support its use as energizer in general body weakness or exhaustion.


Effect of Jobelyn ® on intruder- and isolation-induced aggressive behavior in mice

JB (5, 10 or 50 mg/kg) decreased aggressive behaviorswithout impairing the defensive mechanisms of mice. PCPA (20 mg/kg), an inhibitor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) biosynthesis, increased aggressive responses and reduced the anti-aggressive effect of JB. FL (10 mg/kg), a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, significantly suppressed aggression but did not alter the effect of JB on aggression. MS (50 mg/kg), a 5-HT receptor antagonist, reduced aggression and enhanced the effect of JB on aggression.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that JB has antiaggressiveactivity, which may be related to the enhancement of serotonergic system.


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Evaluation of the Effect of Jobelyn® on Chemoconvulsants- Induced Seizure in Mice

JB (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o) could only delay the onset of seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice. However, it did not offer any protection against seizure episodes, as it failed to prevent the animals, from exhibiting tonic-clonic convulsions caused by pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg, i.p.), strychnine (2 mg/kg) or picrotoxin (6 mg/kg, i.p.). On the other hand, diazepam (2 mg/kg, p.o.), offered 100% protection against convulsive seizures, induced by pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg, i.p.). However, it failed to prevent seizures produced by strychnine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or picrotoxin (6 mg/kg, i.p.).
Discussion: Our results suggest that JB could not prevent the examined chemoconvulsantsinduced convulsions. However, its ability to delay the latency to seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole suggests that JB might be effective in the control of the seizure spread in epileptic brains.


Antioxidant Property of Jobelyn as the Possible Mechanism Underlying its Anti-amnesic Activity in Rodents

JB was found to produce a significant increase in the level of alternation behavior compared with the control, suggesting anti-amnesic activity. Also, JB reversed the memory impairment induced by scopolamine, which further indicates anti-amnesic property. Furthermore, JB demonstrated a significant inhibition of MDA formation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats, indicating antioxidant property. In addition, it increased the defense armory of the brain tissues, as it significantly increased the concentrations of GSH in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. However, JB did not demonstrate any inhibitory effectagainst AChE activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats in comparison with the control group.

Discussion: This investigation provides evidence that suggests that JB has anti-amnesic and antioxidant properties. Although the present data suggest that the anti-amnesic property of JB might be related to its antioxidant activity, more studies are necessary to clarify this observation.


Jobelyn ® pretreatment ameliorates symptoms of psychosis in experimental models

JB (5 – 50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited stereotypy induced by amphetamine (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or apomorphine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), which suggests antipsychotic activity. Furthermore, JB (5 – 50 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced lethality in aggregated mice and inhibited hyperactivity induced by amphetamine, respectively. However, JB (5 – 50 mg/kg, p.o.) did not cause cataleptic behavior, as it failed to alter the duration of stay of the animals on the inclined plane.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggest that JB exhibits antipsychotic-like activity, devoid of the adverse effect of cataleptic behavior, and may offer some beneficial effects in the symptomatic relief of psychotic ailments.


Luteolin, a flavonoid with potentials for cancer prevention and therapy


Luteolin, 3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, is a common flavonoid that exists in many types of plants including fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. Plants rich in luteolin have been used in Chinese traditional medicine for treating various diseases such as hypertension, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. Having multiple biological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-allergy and anticancer, luteolin functions as either an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant biochemically. The biological effects of luteolin could be functionally related to each other. For instance, the anti-inflammatory activity may be linked to its anticancer property. Luteolin's anticancer property is associated with the induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Furthermore, luteolin sensitizes cancer cells to therapeutic-induced cytotoxicity through suppressing cell survival pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and stimulating apoptosis pathways including those that induce the tumor suppressor p53. These observations suggest that luteolin could be an anticancer agent for various cancers. Furthermore, recent epidemiological studies have attributed a cancer prevention property to luteolin. In this review, we summarize the progress of recent research on luteolin, with a particular focus on its anticancer role and molecular mechanisms underlying this property of luteolin.


An open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study of the efficacy of sorghum bicolor extract in preoperative anemia.




Anemia in patients presenting for elective surgery is associated with increased morbidity, allogeneic blood transfusion, and delay of surgery. Extract of sorghum bicolor has been shown to have hemopoietic, immune-stimulating, and antioxidant effects in rats and in patients with HIV. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the extract in patients with preoperative anemia booked for myomectomy.


Consenting patients (N = 66) were randomly assigned to two groups. The test group (n = 34) was given folic acid 5 mg/d, 200 mg iron tablet three times daily, and 500 mg/d of the extract. The control group (n = 32) was given the same doses of folic acid and iron for a period of 3 wk. Blood samples were taken at baseline and weekly for full blood cell count and liver and kidney function tests. Participants were screened for tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis, and sickle cell anemia.


Increases in red blood cell count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration in participants in the test group were highly significant (P < 0.0002, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively). Participants in the control group had a significant increase in the hemoglobin concentration (P > 0.04). The changes in liver enzymes, urea, and creatinine for participants in the test group were within the normal ranges.


The addition of the extract of sorghum bicolor to routine hematinics is superior to the use of routine hematinics alone. Although the difference is not statistically significant, the extract will correct preoperative anemia in an additional 15% of the patients.


Newly isolated compounds from West African Sorghum bicolor leaf sheaths Jobelyn® show potential in cancer immunosurveillance

Jobelyn, a West African pharmaceutical product derived from Sorghum bicolor leaf sheaths has been shown to possess strong anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to evaluate the expression of cell surface markers CD69 on activated natural killer (NK) cells; natural killer T (NKT) cells; and T cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) upon treatment with Jobelyn fractions using flow cytometry. Blood was collected from 3 donors, PBMC were isolated and plated with each specific fraction: crude extracts (J); ethyl acetate (JE); n-butanol (JB); secondary compounds from JE (JE5; JE6); purified and semi-purified compounds from JE5 (P8 and P9) at specific concentrations (2.5-500 g/ml). For the crude extracts, JE was the most active showing significant expression of CD69 on NK-(P  0.001), T- (P  0.0001), and NKT- treated cells (P  0.0001). Secondary compound, JE5, of JE also showed significant CD69 expression on NK- (P  0.018) and T-treated cells (P  0.027), but not on NKT-treated cells (P  0.084). Similarly, the semi-purified compound P8, from JE5 showed increased expression of CD69 on NK- (P0.023); T- (P  0.001), and NKT-treated cells (P0.007). Evidence of innate effector cells activation by ethanolic extracts of Jobelyn suggests that this variety of Sorghum may be able to mediate direct cell cytotoxicity supporting the control and clearance of a number of tumour cells.


Apigenin and apigeninidin isolates from the Sorghum bicolor leaf targets inflammation via cyclo‐oxygenase‐2 and prostaglandin‐E2 blockade


Jobelyn® exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and membrane-stabilizing activities in experimental models.


Jobelyn® (JB) is an African sorghum-based food supplement claimed to be efficacious for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although in vitro studies confirmed its anti-inflammatory property, no study had shown the effect of JB using in vivo animal models of inflammation. Thus, its
effects on acute and chronic inflammation in rats were evaluated in this study. Its effect on rat red blood cell (RBC) lysis was also assessed.
Acute inflammation was induced with intraplanter injection of carrageenan and increase in rat paw volume was measured using plethysmometer. The volume of fluid exudates, number of leukocytes, concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) in the fluid were measured on day 5 after induction of chronic inflammation with carrageenan in the granuloma air pouch model. RBC lysis induced by hypotonic medium as determined by release of hemoglobin was measured spectrophotometerically.
JB (50-200 mg/kg) given orally produced a significant inhibition of acute inflammation induced by carrageenan in rats. It reduced the volume and number of leukocytes in inflammatory fluid in the granuloma air pouch model of chronic inflammation. It further decreased the levels of MDA in the fluid suggesting antioxidant property. JB elevated the concentrations of GSH in inflammatory exudates indicating free radical scavenging activity. It also significantly inhibited RBC lysis caused by hypotonic medium, suggesting membrane-stabilizing property.
JB has in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, which may be related to its antioxidant and membrane stabilizing properties, supporting its use for the treatment of arthritic disorder.
Jobelyn® exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and membrane-stabilizing activities in experimental


Monosodium glutamate induces memory and hepatic dysfunctions in mice: ameliorative role of Jobelyn® through the augmentation of cellular antioxidant defense machineries

This study investigated the effect of high doses of monosodium glutamate (MSG), a known food additive on hepatic, memory and locomotor functions in mice, and the ameliorative potentials of Jobelyn® (JB), a unique dietary supplement. Twenty four male Swiss mice divided into 4 groups (n = 6) were given MSG (2, 4 and 8 g/kg) or normal saline (10 mL/kg) orally for 14 days. In the intervention study, another set of 30 male Swiss mice distributed into 5 groups (n = 6) received normal saline, MSG (8 g/kg) alone or in combination with JB (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) orally, for 14 days. Memory and locomotor functions as well as brain oxido-nitrergic stress biomarkers were then assessed in both studies. The hepatic oxido-nitrergic stress biomarkers, liver enzymes functions and histomorphology of the liver were also assessed. MSG (2, 4 and 8 g/kg) produced memory dysfunction, hyperlocomotion, increased malondialdehyde and nitrite levels accompanied by decreased antioxidant status in the brain and hepatic tissues. MSG-treated mice had increased hepatic enzyme activities (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) and distorted cyto-architectural integrity of the liver. These findings further suggest that MSG compromised hepatic functioning, which might also contribute to its neurotoxicity. However, JB (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o) attenuated the memory deficit, hyperlocomotion, increased oxido-nitrergic stress responses in the brain and hepatic tissues induced by MSG (8 g/kg, p.o). JB also normalized hepatic enzymes activities and histomorphological changes in MSG-treated mice. Taken together, JB mitigated MSG-induced toxicity through mechanisms relating to enhancement of cellular antioxidant-machineries and normalization of hepatic enzymatic functions.
Keywords Jobelyn® · Monosodium glutamate · Neurotoxicity · Hepatotoxicity · Oxido-nitrergic stress