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Thermal stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidin pigments


3-Deoxyanthocyanidins are promising natural colourants due to their unique properties compared to anthocyanins. However, thermal stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins is largely unknown. Thermal stability of crude and pure 3-deoxyanthocyanidins was determined at 95 C/2 h and 121 C/30 min, at pH 1–7 using HCl, formic or citric acid as acidulants. The colour retention of crude and pure 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (79–89% after 95 C/2 h and 39–118% after 121 C/30 min) was high compared to literature reports for anthocyanins under similar treatments. pH significantly affected the thermal stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins: Colour retention was better at pH 1–2 (70.2–118%) than at pH 3–7 (39.0–86.8%). Chalcones were identified as the major heat degradation products at pH 3–7. Slow rate of chalcone formation and resistance to C-ring fission were identified as the major contributors to thermal stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. Overall, the heat stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins indicates good potential for food use.


West African Sorghum bicolor Leaf Sheaths Have Anti-Inflammatory and Immune-Modulating Properties In Vitro.


Abstract The impact of chronic inflammatory conditions on immune function is substantial, and the simultaneous application of anti-inflammatory and immune modulating modalities has potential for reducing inflammation-induced immune suppression. Sorghum-based foods, teas, beers, and extracts are used in traditional medicine, placing an importance on obtaining an increased understanding of the biological effects of sorghum. This study examined selected anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties in vitro of Jobelyn™, containing the polyphenol-rich leaf sheaths from a West African variant of Sorghum bicolor (SBLS). Freshly isolated primary human polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear cell subsets were used to test selected cellular functions in the absence versus presence of aqueous and ethanol extracts of SBLS. Both aqueous and nonaqueous compounds contributed to reduced reactive oxygen species formation by inflammatory PMN cells, and reduced the migration of these cells in response to the inflammatory chemoattractant leukotriene B4. Distinct effects were seen on lymphocyte and monocyte subsets in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The aqueous extract of SBLS triggered robust upregulation of the CD69 activation marker on CD3- CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells, whereas the ethanol extract of SBLS triggered similar upregulation of CD69 on CD3+ CD56+ NKT cells, CD3+ T lymphocytes, and monocytes. This was accompanied by many-fold increases in the chemokines RANTES/CCL5, Mip-1?/CCL3, and MIP-1?/CCL4. Both aqueous and nonaqueous compounds contribute to anti-inflammatory effects, combined with multiple effects on immune cell activation status. These observations may help suggest mechanisms of action that contribute to the traditional use of sorghum-based products, beverages, and extracts for immune support.



Clinical Efficacy of a West African Sorghum bicolor-Based Traditional Herbal Preparation Jobelyn Shows Increased Hemoglobin and CD4 + T-Lymphocyte Counts in HIV + Patients


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a traditional herbal preparation, Jobelyn, for its effects on anemia and CD4 + T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus–positive (HIV + ) patients in Nigeria.

Design: An open-label pilot study involving 10 confirmed HIV + patients who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) was performed, in which the patients consumed Jobelyn for 8 weeks, at a dose of 500mg twice daily. The pilot study was followed by a controlled trial involving 51 patients, all confirmed HIV + , where the patients with CD4 + T-cell counts below 350 cells/lL were receiving ARVT. The eight patients with baseline CD4 + T-cell counts above 350 cells/lL received Jobelyn. The remaining patients who all received ARVT were randomized to ARVT alone versus ARVT + Jobelyn for 12 weeks.
Results: Patients receiving ARVT showed a statistically significant improvement in their CD4 + T-cell counts across the 12-week study period ( p < 0.01). Patients receiving ARVT + Jobelyn showed a faster improvement, reaching a high level of statistical significance compared to baseline already at 6 weeks ( p < 0.001), and remained
highly significant at 12 weeks ( p < 0.001).
Conclusions: This is the first controlled study conducted to evaluate efficacy of Jobelyn on immune status in HIV + patients. The data suggest that consumption of Jobelyn contributed to improved hemoglobin levels and increased CD4 + T-cell counts in Nigerian HIV + patients. Further studies are needed to examine similar effects in other populations, and to elaborate on the underlying mechanisms, specifically, whether the consumption of Jobelyn supported multiple aspects of bone marrow function.


The influence of African Herbal Formula on the haematological parameters of trypanosome infected rats

A herbal mixture of herbs code named African Herbal Formula (AFH) influenced the state of anaemia in trypanosome infected rats. Observations showed that the formula has an effect on the haemopoietic system manifested by a positive increase in the levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and red blood cell while the white blood cell and lymphocyte levels were decreased. AHF also delayed the proliferation of the parasites and improved the level of the characteristic weight loss associated with trypanosomiasis.


Response of Trypanosoma brucei brucei–induced anaemia to a commercial herbal preparation

Jubi Formula® is a herbal preparation made from three medicinal herbs (Parquetina nigrescens, Sorghum bicolor and Harungana madagascariensis). It has been reported to have been successfully used in the treatment of anaemia in humans. A study was therefore carried out to determine the effect of the preparation on packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in anaemic rabbits. The PCV and Hb concentrations of healthy rabbits infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei were monitored for 49 days. T. b. brucei produced a significant reduction in PCV and Hb concentrations in all infected rabbits when compared with the controls (p<0.05). These hematological parameters were restored to normal levels in the anaemic rabbits by the herbal preparation. The anaemic rabbits not treated with the herbal preparation presented with a progressive decline in their PCV and Hb concentrations and majority of them died before the end of the study. Healthy rabbits that received daily doses of the herbal preparation showed gradual elevation in PCV and Hb concentrations which were maintained within normal range. Jubi Formula® can restore the PCV and Hb concentrations in anaemic conditions and is a potential substitute for blood transfusion. However, further studies are needed to investigate the potentials of the herbal preparation in reversing anaemia.

Key words: Anaemia, PCV, rabbits, haemoglobin, herbal preparation.


Toxicological Profiles of Commercial Herbal Preparation, Jobelyn®


PURPOSE: Jobelyn® is a commercial herbal product recommended for the management of anemia related illnesses. Despite its wide use, there is limited report on its toxicological profile. This study examined the acute and shortterm chronic toxicity profiles of the product with emphasis on the LD50, gross morphological and histopathological effects.

METHODS: Albino mice (mean weight: 16.45±3.14g) were used in this study. For acute toxicity, graded concentrations of Jobelyn® were administered orally and intraperitoneally as single doses to the mice. Intraperitoneal administration of sub-lethal doses daily for 14 days was adopted for the shortterm chronic toxicity studies.
RESULTS: The LD50 following oral and intraperitoneal administration were 215.06 mg/kg (r = 0.916) and 193.37 mg/kg (r = 0.995), respectively. The major behavioral/ morphological effects at high doses were reduction in motor activity, piloerection and sedation. The sub-lethal doses did not significantly modify the normal behavioral repertoire of licking, grooming and sniffing. Histopathological examination also did not indicate severe pathological changes. At the lethal doses, some degree of congestion was noticed in the lung, liver splenic and kidney tissues. Short-term chronic studies did not produce further toxic effects but transient mild sedation and piloerection and histopathological examination revealed only mild congestion in the organs. No death of the animals was recorded during the period of sub-chronic toxicity assessment.
CONCLUSION: Jobelyn® is likely to be safe for use in humans when administered at recommended doses.
Keywords: Jobelyn, safety profile, LD50, toxicity


Comparison of an African herbal formula with commercially available haematinics

The haematological changes observed with commercially available haematinics (Fagon 9® and Chemiron®) were compared with those of a local haematinic referred to as African Herbal Formula (AHF). Results showed that AHF produced effects in haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) levels which are reasonably comparable with the reference commercial and chemically defined haematinics. Key words: Haematological changes, haematinics, African Herbal Formula, Trypanosome brucei brucei.


Health Related Tests on Sorghum bicolor at Alcorn State University

Potential health-benefits of the herb Sorghum bicolor was compared to that of the herbs basil and thyme.

Extracts of the herbs Sorghum bicolor, basil, and thyme were tested for total flavonoid content and Free-radical scavenging ability using the Aluminum Chloride Method and DPPHFree-Radical Scavenging assay, respectively. The data are given below:

Herb Sample Total Flavonoid DPPH Free-radical Content (~g/mL) scavenging ability (%) Sorghum bicolor 870 1.9 Thyme 318 2.6 Basil 205 3.4

The data represents an average result of three samples for each herb. The results indicate that Sorghum bicolor is an excellent source of flavonoids, almost tripled the amount found in the other herbs tested.

Although basil was best at scavenging DPPHfree radical, the ability of Sorghum extracts to scavenge DPPHwas comparable to that of thyme.
Further tests ( such as total phenol content and HPLCfor specific flavonoids) are forthcoming.
Tests were performed and data analyzed by Dr. Sandra L. Barnes and Mrs. Johnnie Gibbs, Department of Chemistry & Physics, Alcorn State University. Sorghum bicolor samples were provided by Dr. Chief Alexander Acholonu, Department of Biological Sciences, Alcorn State University.

New Highly Stable Dimeric 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Pigments from Sorghum bicolor Leaf Sheath

Abstract: The growing interest in natural alternatives to synthetic petroleum-based dyes for food applications necessitates looking at nontraditional sources of natural colors. Certain sorghum varieties accumulate large amounts of poorly characterized pigments in their nongrain tissue. We used High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectroscopy to characterize sorghum leaf sheath pigments and measured the stability of isolated pigments in the presence of bisulfite at pH 1.0 to 7.0 over a 4-wk period. Two new 3-deoxyanthocyanidin compounds were identified: apigeninidin-flavene dimer and apigenin-7-O-methylflavene dimer. The dimeric molecules had near identical UV-Vis absorbance profiles at pH 1.0 to 7.0, with no obvious sign of chalcone or quinoidal base formation even at the neutral pH, indicating unusually strong resistance to hydrophilic attack. The dimeric 3-deoxyanthocyanidins were also highly resistant to nucleophilic attack by SO2; for example, apigeninidin-flavene dimer lost less than 20%of absorbance, compared to apigeninidin monomer, which lost more than 80% of absorbance at ?max within 1 h in the presence of SO2. The increased molecular complexity of the dimeric 3-deoxyanthocyanidins compared to their monomers may be responsible for their unusual stability in the presence of bisulfite; these compounds present new interesting opportunities for food applications. Keywords: anthocyanin, color stability, 3-deoxyanthocyanin, pigments, sorghum


Jobelyn ® pretreatment ameliorates symptoms of psychosis in experimental models


Background: Psychosis is a chronic neurological disorde and it remains a major medical and social problem in most African countries. Individuals with psychotic illness in this region tend to seek help from traditional medical practitioners, who prescribe herbal remedies as alternative forms of treatment for the disease. Jobelyn ® (JB) is a commercial polyherbal formulation that has been acclaimed to show beneficial effects in neurological disorders. However, its usefulness in psychosis has not been scientifically validated. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate its effects on animal models predictive of human psychosis.

Methods: Antipsychotic activity of JB was assessed based on the inhibition of stereotyped behavior induced by amphetamine or apomorphine in mice. Amphetamine- induced hyperactivity and lethality in aggregated mice were additional tests employed to further evaluate the antipsychotic property of JB. The effect of JB on catalepsy was also assessed, using the inclined plane paradigm.

Results: JB (5 – 50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited stereotypy induced by amphetamine (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or apomorphine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), which suggests antipsychotic activity. Furthermore, JB (5 – 50 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced lethality in aggregated mice and inhibited hyperactivity induced by amphetamine, respectively. However, JB (5 – 50 mg/kg, p.o.) did not cause cataleptic behavior, as it failed to alter the duration of stay of the animals on the inclined plane.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings suggestthat JB exhibits antipsychotic-like activity, devoid of the adverse effect of cataleptic behavior, and may offer some beneficial effects in the symptomatic relief of psychotic ailments.


Evaluation of the Effect of Jobelyn® on Chemoconvulsants-Induced Seizure in Mice

Introduction: Epilepsy is a common central nervous system (CNS) disorder characterized by seizures resulting from episodic neuronal discharges. The incidence of toxicity and refractoriness has compromised the clinical efficacy of the drugs currently used for the treatment of convulsions. Thus, there is a need to search for new medicines from plant origin that are readily available and safer for the control of seizures. Jobelyn® (JB) is a unique African polyherbal preparation used by the natives to treat seizures in children. This investigation was carried out to evaluate whether JB has anti-seizure property in mice.

Our results suggest that JB could not prevent the examined chemoconvulsantsinduced convulsions. However, its ability to delay the latency to seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole suggests that JB might be effective in the control of the seizure spread in epileptic brains.


Antioxidant Property of Jobelyn as the Possible Mechanism Underlying its Anti-amnesic Activity in Rodents

JB was found to produce a significant increase in the level of alternation behavior compared with the control, suggesting anti-amnesic activity. Also, JB reversed the memory impairment induced by scopolamine, which further indicates anti-amnesic property. Furthermore, JB demonstrated a significant inhibition of MDA formation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats, indicating antioxidant property. In addition, it increased the defense armory of the brain tissues, as it significantly increased the concentrations of GSH in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. However, JB did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect against AChE activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats in comparison with thecontrol group.

Discussion: This investigation provides evidence that suggests that JB has anti-amnesic and antioxidant properties. Although the present data suggest that the anti-amnesic property of JB might be related to its antioxidant activity, more studies are necessary to clarify this observation.


Antidepressant-like Property of Jobelyn ® , an African Unique Herbal Formulation in Mice


Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether Jobelyn ® (JB) possesses anti-depressant-like property in the mouse forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and yohimbine-induced lethality test (YLT)in aggregated mice.

Methods: Mice were given JB (10–100 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 7 days and then subjected to FST, TST, YLT and open fi eld test. The parameters assessed in both FST and TST were the time (s) spent in active movement (struggling time), first occurrence of immobility (s) and the duration of immobility (s). In the YLT, the mortality rate was recorded 24 h after yohimbine (35 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. In the open field test, the number of line crosses and total distance travelled (m) were measured for 10 min in the open field chamber.

Results: JB signifi cantly (p < 0.05) decrease the duration of immobility both in the FST and TST, which suggests antidepressant-like property. JB significantly (p < 0.05) prolonged the time spent in active swimming and delayed the fi rst occurrence of immobility, indicating endurance promoting eff ect. It potentiated the toxic effect of yohimbine, which further suggests antidepressant- like activity and facilitation of both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmissions. However, JB did not signifi cantly increase the locomotor activity in the open-field test.

Conclusions: Jobelyn ® has antidepressant-like activity, which may be related to the stimulation of serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways. The ability of Jobelyn ® to delay the onset of immobility and to prolong the struggling time support its use as energizer in general body weakness or exhaustion.


Effect of Jobelyn ® on intruder- and isolation-induced aggressive behavior in mice


Background: Aggression is a violent behavior emitted against another organism that may lead to its harm or death and thus is of public health significance, which necessitates the search for agents with anti-aggressive property. This study investigated the effect of Jobelyn ® (JB), a unique African polyherbal formulation, on intruder- and isolation-induced aggressive behaviors in mice.

Methods: Male mice that showed aggression after being housed individually with female counterparts for 3 weeks or kept in isolation for 4 weeks were treated orally (p.o.) with JB (5, 10 or 50 mg/kg), haloperidol (HP) (1 mg/kg), fluoxetine (FL) (10 mg/kg), p -chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) (20 mg/kg), mianserin (MS) (50 mg/kg) or distilled water (10 mL/kg) 60 min before being tested for aggression. Interaction studies involving oral administration of PCPA (20 mg/kg), FL (10 mg/kg) or MS (50 mg/kg) to aggressive mice that had received JB (5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.) 30 min earlier were assessed. The effect of JB (5, 10 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) on defensive behaviors was also evaluated.

Results: JB (5, 10 or 50 mg/kg) decreased aggressive behaviors without impairing the defensive mechanisms of mice. PCPA (20 mg/kg), an inhibitor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) biosynthesis, increased aggressive responses and reduced the anti-aggressive effect of JB. FL (10 mg/kg), a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, significantly suppressed aggression but did not alter the effect of JB on aggression. MS (50 mg/kg), a 5-HT receptor antagonist, reduced aggression and enhanced the effect of JB on aggression.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that JB has antiaggressive activity, which may be related to the enhancement of serotonergic system.


Jobelyn® exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and membrane-stabilizing activities in experimental models.

Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology05/2015; DOI: 10.1515/jbcpp-2014-0113


ABSTRACT Jobelyn® (JB) is an African sorghum-based food supplement claimed to be efficacious for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although in vitro studies confirmed its anti-inflammatory property, no study had shown the effect of JB using in vivo animal models of inflammation. Thus, its effects on acute and chronic inflammation in rats were evaluated in this study. Its effect on rat red blood cell (RBC) lysis was also assessed.
Acute inflammation was induced with intraplanter injection of carrageenan and increase in rat paw volume was measured using plethysmometer. The volume of fluid exudates, number of leukocytes, concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) in the fluid were measured on day 5 after induction of chronic inflammation with carrageenan in the granuloma air pouch model. RBC lysis induced by hypotonic medium as determined by release of hemoglobin was measured spectrophotometerically.
JB (50-200 mg/kg) given orally produced a significant inhibition of acute inflammation induced by carrageenan in rats. It reduced the volume and number of leukocytes in inflammatory fluid in the granuloma air pouch model of chronic inflammation. It further decreased the levels of MDA in the fluid suggesting antioxidant property. JB elevated the concentrations of GSH in inflammatory exudates indicating free radical scavenging activity. It also significantly inhibited RBC lysis caused by hypotonic medium, suggesting membrane-stabilizing property.
JB has in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, which may be related to its antioxidant and membrane-stabilizing properties, supporting its use for the treatment of arthritic disorder.
Jobelyn® exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and membrane-stabilizing activities in experimental models.. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277409295_Jobelyn_exhibited_anti-inflammatory_antioxidant_and_membrane-stabilizing_activities_in_experimental_models [accessed Jun 13, 2015].


Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Hepacare®, a Herbal Formulation Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury


Hepacare(®) is a herbal formulation used to treat patients with sickle-cell anaemia complicated with jaundice, also recommended as a protective agent against liver damage due to chronic ingestion of alcohol.In vitro antioxidant properties of Hepacare(®) was determined using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), total antioxidant capacity, reducing power ability, and nitric oxide assays. Hepatoprotective effect of Hepacare(®) (50-400 mg/kg/day for 7 days, p.o.) was investigated in male Sprague Dawley rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 /olive oil, 1:1, 0.7 ml/kg, i.p.)-induced liver damage. At the end of the study, blood samples and liver tissue were assayed for biochemical and antioxidants parameters.Hepacare produced concentration dependent inhibition of DPPH and nitric oxide activity with IC50 of 48.50 and 55.00 µg/ml, respectively, it suppressed the absorbance of ABTS(.+) with total antioxidant capacity of 423.47±8.37 mg QUE/g. CCl4 administration induced significant (P<0.001) elevation of serum aspartate transaminase (1.70 fold), alanine transaminase (1.60 fold), alkaline phosphatase (2.90 fold) and bilirubin (2.00 fold) in comparison to control. The increase in serum biomarker were dose-depen-dently reversed by Hepacare(®) pretreatment. More-over, CCl4 pretreatment increased (P<0.001) malondialdehyde (MDA) (73.98%) and decreased (P<0.001) antioxidant enzymes level but Hepacare pretreatment produced dose-dependent attenuation of the increased MDA (3.84 fold) with enhancement of glutathione (3.08 fold), superoxide dismutase (2.08 fold), and catalase (3.14 folds) levels in comparison to CCl4 treated group, similar to those of silymarin reference standard.Hepacare was beneficial in the prevention of CCl4-induced hepatocellular injury, possibly by scavenging reactive free radicals, and boosting endogenous antioxidant systems.


Neuroprotective Effect of Jobelyn in the Hippocampus of Alcoholic Rat Is Mediated in Part by Alterations in GFAP and NF Protein Expressions

Abstract: Alcohol induced neurodegeneration drives the progression of an alcohol use disorder. Unfortunately, in the adults' brain, the hippocampus that could compensate for neurodegeneration with neurogenesis isparticularly susceptible to alcohol induced neurodegeneration. The objective of this work was to determine if Jobelyn, a nutraceutical, could protect the hippocampus from neurodegeneration in a binge alcohol rat model of alcohol use disorders. Three groups of Wister rats were used: control, alcohol exposed with no supplement
and alcohol exposed with Jobelyn supplementation. Rats were given alcohol thrice a day at 8 hours interval for 4 days. The control rats received isocaloric non alcoholic diet for equivalent days. H&E stains, glia fibrilary acidic protein and neurofilament immunolabellings were obtained for pathological and immunohistochemical studies. Results showed thatafter 4 days of binge treatment, the histological index of neurodegeneration was significantly lower in the Jobelyn treated rats compared with the rats that received only alcohol. GFAP immunohistochemistry showed that Jobelyn prevented astrocyte death in the DG, CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. Except in the DG, this was not accompanied by a reduction in GFAP expression. NF immunohistochemistry showed that Jobelyn can reduce neuroinflammation in these three regions of the hippocampus. In the CA3 region, Jobelyn prevented a reduction in NF proteins expression in alcohol exposed rats. However, Jobelyn supplementations lead to NF protein overexpression in the CA1 region. Conclusively, this study indicates that moderate activation of astrocytes and NF protein expression are critical for neuronal survival in alcohol toxicity. It is opine that the neuroprotective effect of Jobelyn in the hippocampus of alcoholic rats is mediated in part by modulation GFAP and NF protein expressions in the DG, CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus.



Jobelyn ® Supplement Lowered Neuronal Degeneration: Significance of Altered p53 and ɤ-Enolase Protein Expressions in Prefrontal Cortex of Rat Exposed to Ethanol


Background: Alcohol-induced neurodegeneration, a consequence of chronic ethanol exposure, is a neuroadaptation that drives the progression of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unfortunately, conventional drugs for AUDs do not prevent neurodegeneration as part of their pharmacological repertoire. Multimodal neuroprotective therapeutic agents are hypothesized to have high therapeutic utility in the treatment of central nervous system. Interestingly, nutraceuticals by nature are multimodal in mechanisms of action.

This study examined the neuroprotective potential of Jobelyn in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of a binge-alcohol rat model of AUD. Methods: Three groups of rats were fed thrice daily
through an orogastric tube with 5 g/kg ethanol (25% w/v), 5 g/kg ethanol (25% w/v) plus Jobelyn (4 mg/kg body weight), and 5 g/kg of a nutritionally complete diet (50%
v/v), respectively. Cytoarchitectural study of the PFC was done in slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Immu-nohistochemical analyses were performed with mice monoclonal anti-p53 and anti-neuron specific enolase (NSE) antibodies to detect the degree of apoptosis and necrosis in the PFC. In addition, the degree of tissue damage and the level of lipid peroxidation were evaluated.


Jobelyn supplementation significantly lowered the levels of histologic and biochemical indices of neurodegeneration, and caused an increased expression of p53 protein and a decreased expression of NSE immunoreactivity (NSE-IR).


Jobelyn supplementation ameliorates neurodegeneration in the PFC of AUD rats by reducing the oxidative stress, reducing the NSE-IR, and by increasing the expression of cellular  tumor antigen p53 in the cortical neurons.


Pharmacological evaluation of the analgesic and anxiolytic activities of Jobelyn® in mice

Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology 03/2014; 25(4). DOI: 10.1515/jbcpp20130149
Source: PubMed

Abstract Background: This study presents the results of the pharmacological evaluation of the analgesic and anxiolytic potentials of Jobelyn®, a potent antioxidant African herbal formulation, in mice. The analgesic effect was assessed utilizing acetic acidinduced writhing, tail immersion and formalininduced paw licking pain models. The anxiolytic activity was evaluated using elevatedplus maze (EPM) and light/dark box.

Methods: Mice (5/group) were treated with JB (10200 mg/kg, p.o.) 1 h before the tests were carried out. In the writhing test, the number of abdominal constrictions was recorded for a period of 30 min after induction of nociception with 0.6% acetic acid, i.p. In the tail immersion test, the latency to tail withdrawal responses to
noxious heat was measured. The duration of paw licking (s) was measured as an index of nociception in the formalin test. In the anxiolytic test, the patterns of transition in the two arms of the EPM and in the light/dark box were assessed. Results: JB (10200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the inflammatory pain produced by acetic acid as evidenced by decreased number of abdominal constrictions in comparison with the control. It also shows higher potency in suppressing the inflammatory pain associated with the second phase of the formalin test. However, JB did not exhibit anxiolytic properties nor modify the pain behavior in the tail
immersion test.

Conclusions: The results obtained from this study suggest that Jobelyn® might be efficacious against inflammatory pain and further support its recommendation for the management of pain with inflammation as the underlying factor.

Effect of Jobelyn® (Sorghum Bicolor) on nitric oxide and arginase activity in sickle cell anaemic subjects (HbSS)
ANTHONY AMAECHI ANI1 and Ngozi Awa Imaga2

(The FASEB Journal. 2011;25:959.1)
© 2011 FASEB

The objective of this in vivo study was designed to investigate the effect of jobelyn on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase activity in sickle cell anaemic subjects and to elucidate the biochemical pathways through which jobelyn aids in management of sickle cell anaemia; with arginase (EC ) and nitric oxide synthase (EC ) pathways under investigation. Both pathways are implicated in vaso-occlusive crisis usually presented during sickle cell crisis. Three adult human subjects (n=3; Age: 24±3) that had not taken jobelyn prior to the study were recruited from the sickle cell clinic, lagos university teaching hospital.
Blood samples were collected before administration, during administration and withdrawal (Day 0, Day7 & 14, and Day 28 respectively) for haematological, biochemistry, nitric oxide and arginase activity analysis. The mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) g/L on Day 7 and Day 14 were statistically higher than Day
0(P<0.05), while Day 28 is lower than Day 7 and Day 14 (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in nitric oxide concentration μM and arginase activity U/L in all sampling days (P>0.05). In conclusion, administration of jobelyn increases the Hb concentration in sickle cell anaemic subjects, but does not affect nitric oxide
concentration and arginase activity.

Jobelyn®, a Sorghum-Based Nutritional Supplement Attenuates Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Memory Deficits in Mice

Solomon Umukoro1,2*, Osarume Omorogbe1, Oritoke Modupe Aluko1, Taghogho Anthony Eduviere3, Olatunde Owoeye4, Oluwafemi Gabriel Oluwole1

The ability of an organism to adapt to aversive stressful situations or life challenging circumstances is very crucial to its state of health and survival. However, breakdown in adaptation due to persistent uncontrollable stress, leads to impairment of bodily functions and onset of a variety of  pathological disorders especially memory decline. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Jobelyn® (JB), a potent antioxidant sorghum-based food supplement on unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced memory impairment in mice. Male Swiss mice were given JB (5 - 50mg/kg, p.o) 30 min prior to exposure to UCMS for 14 consecutive days before testing for memory.
Thereafter, the serum corticosterone level was estimated by using ELISA kits. The levels of malondialdehyde
(MDA) and glutathione (GSH) as well as acetylcholinesterase activity were estimated in the brain homogenate using spectrophotometer. Histology of the brain tissues and estimation of the populations of viable neurons in the hippocampal region were done after staining with hematoxyline and eosin. Our results showed that JB reversed memory impairment and suppressed corticosterone concentrations induced by UCMS. Moreover, JB reduced oxidative stress in the brain of UCMS-mice as shown by decreased MDA levels and elevated GSH concentrations. It also decreased  brain acetylcholinesterase activity when compared with chronic stress group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, JB (5 - 10 mg/kg, p.o) offered significant protection against UCMS-induced degeneration and death of neuronal cells of the cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) of the hippocampal region of the brain indicating neuroprotection. Taken together, these findings suggest that JB attenuates memory deficits induced by UCMS in mice and may be useful therapeutically for stress-related cognitive dysfunctions. The reduction in the levels of serum corticosterone, antioxidation, neuroprotection and inhibition of cholinesterase enzyme might be contributing significantly to the positive effect of JB on memory in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress.


An open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study of the efficacy of sorghum bicolor extract in preoperative anemia.




Anemia in patients presenting for elective surgery is associated with increased morbidity, allogeneic blood transfusion, and delay of surgery. Extract of sorghum bicolor has been shown to have hemopoietic, immune-stimulating, and antioxidant effects in rats and in patients with HIV. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the extract in patients with preoperative anemia booked for myomectomy.


Consenting patients (N = 66) were randomly assigned to two groups. The test group (n = 34) was given folic acid 5 mg/d, 200 mg iron tablet three times daily, and 500 mg/d of the extract. The control group (n = 32) was given the same doses of folic acid and iron for a period of 3 wk. Blood samples were taken at baseline and weekly for full blood cell count and liver and kidney function tests. Participants were screened for tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis, and sickle cell anemia.


Increases in red blood cell count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration in participants in the test group were highly significant (P < 0.0002, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively). Participants in the control group had a significant increase in the hemoglobin concentration (P > 0.04). The changes in liver enzymes, urea, and creatinine for participants in the test group were within the normal ranges.


The addition of the extract of sorghum bicolor to routine hematinics is superior to the use of routine hematinics alone. Although the difference is not statistically significant, the extract will correct preoperative anemia in an additional 15% of the patients.


Newly isolated compounds from West African Sorghum bicolor leaf sheaths Jobelyn® show potential in cancer immunosurveillance

Jobelyn, a West African pharmaceutical product derived from Sorghum bicolor leaf sheaths has been shown to possess strong anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to evaluate the expression of cell surface markers CD69 on activated natural killer (NK) cells; natural killer T (NKT) cells; and T cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) upon treatment with Jobelyn fractions using flow cytometry. Blood was collected from 3 donors, PBMC were isolated and plated with each specific fraction: crude extracts (J); ethyl acetate (JE); n-butanol (JB); secondary compounds from JE (JE5; JE6); purified and semi-purified compounds from JE5 (P8 and P9) at specific concentrations (2.5-500 g/ml). For the crude extracts, JE was the most active showing significant expression of CD69 on NK-(P  0.001), T- (P  0.0001), and NKT- treated cells (P  0.0001). Secondary compound, JE5, of JE also showed significant CD69 expression on NK- (P  0.018) and T-treated cells (P  0.027), but not on NKT-treated cells (P  0.084). Similarly, the semi-purified compound P8, from JE5 showed increased expression of CD69 on NK- (P0.023); T- (P  0.001), and NKT-treated cells (P0.007). Evidence of innate effector cells activation by ethanolic extracts of Jobelyn suggests that this variety of Sorghum may be able to mediate direct cell cytotoxicity supporting the control and clearance of a number of tumour cells.




Sickle cell anaemia in South West Nigeria has a prevalence of 2.4 %.It is characterized  by recurrent crisis like bone pain, hyper haemolysis, acute sequestration, red cell aplasia and  progressive organ damage. These cause high absenteeism at school and at work with a significant  reduction in life expectancy. The phytochemical extract of sorghum bicolor has been shown to have  anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect; and to increase the haemoglobin in experimental rat. The  extract is consumed widely in Nigeria by patients with sickle cell anaemia. This study seeks to  assess the effect of this extract on haemopoiesis in these patients. The study population was the patients attending the adult haematology clinic of the Lagos State
University Teaching Hospital. It was a randomized open label study with 105 consenting participants. One group was given folic acid 5mg twice daily and paludrine 200mg daily. The other
group had in addition, 1gm of extract per day in two divided doses for 4 weeks. The haematological  parameters were taken weekly.
After 4 weeks of taking the extract, there were reduction in white blood cells (p= 0.10) and  platelet counts (p= 0.03).There were significant reductions in the mean red cell haemoglobin
(p=0.0004), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (p=0.0001) while the reduction in mean cell volume  and haematocrit changes were minimal (p=0.3and 0.5 respectively).
The reduction in leukocytes and platelets counts suggests an anti-inflammatory effect of the  extract which may have a clinically positive effect. The significantly reduced cellular haemoglobin  concentration and minimal changes in haematocrit demonstrate that the extract will not unduly  increase the red cell haemoglobin concentration which may promote sickling.

Key words: Haematological parameters. Phytochemical. Sickle cell anaemia. Sorghum bicolor


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