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ABSTRACTS AND FULL RESEARCH PAPERS ON SORGHUM BICOLOR

ABSTRACT OF SORGHUM LITERATURE PUBLICATIONS

  1. Bröhan M, Jerkovic V, Collin S. Potentiality of red sorghum for producing stilbenoid-enriched beers with high antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Apr 27;59(8):4088-94. Epub 2011 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 21381750
  2. Geera B, Ojwang LO, Awika JM. New Highly Stable Dimeric 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Pigments from Sorghum bicolor Leaf Sheath. J Food Sci. 2012 Apr 10. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02668.x. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22489620
  3. Kayodé AP, Nout MJ, Linnemann AR, Hounhouigan JD, Berghofer E, Siebenhandl-Ehn S. Uncommonly high levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and antioxidant capacity in the leaf sheaths of dye sorghum. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Feb 23;59(4):1178-84. Epub 2011 Jan 25. PubMed PMID: 21322653
  4. Yang L, Browning JD, Awika JM. Sorghum 3-deoxyanthocyanins possess strong phase II enzyme inducer activity and cancer cell growth inhibition properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Mar 11;57(5):1797-804. PubMed PMID: 19256554
  5. Shih CH, Siu SO, Ng R, Wong E, Chiu LC, Chu IK, Lo C. Quantitative analysis of anticancer 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in infected sorghum seedlings. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jan 24;55(2):254-9. PubMed PMID: 17227050
  6. Burdette A, Garner PL, Mayer EP, Hargrove JL, Hartle DK, Greenspan P. Anti-inflammatory activity of select sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brans. J Med Food. 2010 Aug;13(4):879-87. PubMed PMID: 20673059
  7. Park JH, Darvin P, Lim EJ, Joung YH, Hong DY, Park EU, Park SH, Choi SK, Moon ES, Cho BW, Park KD, Lee HK, Kim MJ, Park DS, Chung IM, Yang YM. Hwanggeumchal sorghum induces cell cycle arrest, and suppresses tumor growth and metastasis through Jak2/STAT pathways in breast cancer xenografts. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40531. Epub 2012 Jul 6. PubMed PMID: 22792362
  8. Wu L, Huang Z, Qin P, Yao Y, Meng X, Zou J, Zhu K, Ren G. Chemical characterization of a procyanidin-rich extract from sorghum bran and its effect on oxidative stress and tumor inhibition in vivo. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Aug 24;59(16):8609-15. Epub 2011 Jul 29. PubMed PMID: 21780844
  9. Awika JM, McDonough CM, Rooney LW. Decorticating sorghum to concentrate healthy phytochemicals. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 10;53(16):6230-4. PubMed PMID: 16076098
  10. Okochi,V.I.,Okpuzor J, Okubena M.O., Awoyemi A.K. 2003 . The Influence of African Herbal Formula on the haematological parameters of trypanosome infected rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2 (9), 312-316.
  11. Erah P,O., Asonye C.C. Okhamafe A.O. 2003. Response of trypanosome brucei brucei induced anaemia to a commercialherbal preparation. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2,9, 307-311.
  12. Ogwumike OO. Hemopoietic effect of aqueous extract of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor in albino rats. African Journal of Biomedical. Research. (2002): Vol 5; 69 - 71
  13. Oladiji AT, Jacob TO, Yakubu MT. Anti-anaemic potentials of aqueous extract of Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench stem bark in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 22;111(3):651-6. Epub 2007 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 17306481
  14. Preliminary investigation of a colouring matter extract from Sorghum bicolor sheaths and its application to Textile substrates*Gumel, M.S.1 and Ali, U.2
    1 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University Kano.
    2 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Jigawa state Polytechnic.
  15. Effects of Ethanolic/Potash extract of Sorghum bicolor Leaf Sheath on Serum Electrolytes, Liver and Kidney indicative on Albino rats Ogunka-Nnoka, C.U., Uwakwe A.A. and Nnabuike, C.J.*Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.+Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria
  16. Akande IS, Oseni AA, Biobaku OA. Effects of aqueous extract of Sorghum bicolor on hepatic, histological and haematological indices in rats. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 4(9), 137-142, 2010.
  17. Nwinyi FC, Kwanashie HO. Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf base for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8 (18), 4642-4649, 2009.
  18. Eniojukan JF, Bolajoko AA. Toxicological Profiles of Commercial Herbal Preperation, Jobelyn. International Journal of Health Research, 2(4), 369-374, 2009.
  19. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2010.
  20. Sorghum Flavonoids: Unusual Compounds with Promising Implications for Health: Joseph M. Awika: Publication Date (Web): November 30, 2011 | doi: 10.1021/bk-2011-1089.ch009
  21. Comparative antioxidant, antiproliferative and phase II enzyme inducing potential of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties: Joseph M. Awika,*, Liyi Yang, Jimmy D. Browning, Abdul Faraj
  22. Quantitative Analysis of Anticancer 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins in Infected Sorghum Seedlings: Chun-Hat Shih, Siu, Ricky Ng, Elaine Wong, Lawrence C. M. Chiu, Ivan K. Chu, and Clive Lo:J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (2), 254-259 • DOI: 10.1021/jf062516t
  23. Anthocyanins from black sorghum and their antioxidant properties: Joseph M. Awika *, Lloyd W. Rooney, Ralph D. Waniska: Cereal Quality Laboratory, Soil and Crop Sciences Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474, USA
  24. Grain Sorghum Lipid Extract Reduces Cholesterol Absorption and Plasma Non-HDL Cholesterol Concentration in Hamsters1,2: Timothy P. Carr,*3 Curtis L. Weller,†** Vicki L. Schlegel,** Susan L. Cuppett,**: David M. Guderian, Jr.,* and Kyle R. Johnson*
  25. Identification of 3- deoxyanthocyanins from red sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) bran and its biological properties: P.Suganya Devi 1*, Dr.M.Saravanakumar2 and Dr.S.Mohandas3
  26. In vitrofree radical scavenging activity ofSorghum bicolor(L.) Moench :Vijaya1*, N. Sarada mani1 and Varaprasad Bobbarala2
  27. Myths About Sorghum Tannins: Lloyd Rooney, Regents Prof. & Faculty Fellow, C. McDonough, Research Scientist, and L. Dykes, Research Associate Cereal Quality Lab, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474 USA
  28. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use: Mamoudou H. Dicko1,2,3*, Harry Gruppen2, Alfred S. Traoré1, Alphons G. J. Voragen2 and Willem J. H. van Berkel3
  29. Review : Sorghum and millet phenols and antioxidants Linda Dykes_, Lloyd W. Rooney
  30. Study finds that Sorghum bran has more antioxidants than blueberries
  31. CHEMOPREVENTIVE POTENTIAL OF SORGHUM WITH DIFFERENT PHENOLIC PROFILES: A Thesis by LIYI YANG
  32. COLOR STABILITY OF SORGHUM 3-DEOXYANTHOCYANINS AGAINST SULFITE AND ASCORBIC ACID DEGRADATION; pH INFLUENCE: A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School at the University of Missouri-Columbia
  33. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2
    http://www.orac-info-portal.de/download/ORAC_R2.pdf
  34. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods: Release 3
    http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/Flav/Flav_R03.pdf
  35. NUTRACEUTICAL USES OF SORGHUM BRAN (SORGHUM BICOLOR): By AMY L. BURDETTE
    (Under the Direction of Phillip Greenspan)
    http://www.nulifemarket.com/media/files/nutraceutical_uses_of_sorghum_bran-amy_burdette.pdf
  36. EVALUATION OF ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF SORGHUMS WITH DIFFERENT: GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND LEVELS OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS: A Dissertation by SARA GUAJARDO FLORES
    http://repository.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2745/GUAJARDO-FLORES-DISSERTATION.pdf?sequence=1
  37. Extraction of antioxidant pigments from dye sorghum leaf sheaths
    A.P.P. Kayodé a,*, C.A. Bara a, G. Dalodé-Vieira a, A.R. Linnemann b, M.J.R. Nout ca Département
  38. Mutagenesis Breeding for Increased 3‑Deoxyanthocyanidin
    Accumulation in Leaves of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench: A Source of Natural Food Pigment
    Carloalberto Petti,† Rekha Kushwaha,† Mizuki Tateno,† Anne Elizabeth Harman-Ware,‡ Mark Crocker,‡
    Joseph Awika,§ and Seth DeBolt*,†

  39. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench
    Vijaya1*, N. Sarada mani1 and Varaprasad Bobbarala2
    1Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, India.
    2For U Biosciences, A/4A, Park lane Residency, East point colony, Visakhapatnam, A.P-17, India.

  40. Red Card for Pathogens: Phytoalexins in Sorghum and Maize
    Alana Poloni and Jan Schirawski

  41. Sorghum: An Underutilized Cereal Whole Grain with the Potential to Assist in the Prevention of Chronic Disease: ANITA STEFOSKA-NEEDHAM1, ELEANOR J. BECK1, STUART K. JOHNSON2, AND LINDA C. TAPSELL1

  42. Introduction
    A highly successful health food company in the United States, Silver Plate Inc, is seeking to cash in on the health benefits of sorghum. More particularly, it has begun to commercialize foods rich in sorghum anthocyanins, natural “antioxidant” chemicals found in some strongly coloured plant foods that are believed to have heart and other health benefits.

  43. Pigment Characterization in Grain Sorghum.pdf
  44. Phytoalexin synthesis by the sorghum mesocotyl in response to infection by pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungi, 

    RALPH L. NICHOLSON, SHARON S. KOLLIPARA, JEFFREY R. VINCENT, PHILIP C. LYONS,
    AND GABRIEL CADENA-GOMEZ
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907

  45. Sorghum: Nutrition Attributes and Health Benefits Research Update
    Nancy D. Turner Associate Professor of Nutrition, Food Science and Genetics
    Texas A&M University, College Station

  46. Nutritional and antioxidant dispositions of sorghum/millet-based beverages indigenous to Nigeria

  47. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SORGHUM BICOLOR LEAF WITH ANTISICKLING ACTIVITY by KELSEY GUSTAFSON

ABSTRACT OF SORGHUM LITERATURE PUBLICATIONS

1 Bröhan M, Jerkovic V, Collin S. Potentiality of red sorghum for producing stilbenoid-enriched beers with high antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Apr 27;59(8):4088-94. Epub 2011 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 21381750

Abstract: trans-Piceid and trans-resveratrol were authenticated for the first time by high-resolution mass spectrometry in red sorghum grains. A 0.4-1 mg/kg amount of trans-piceid and up to 0.2 mg/kg trans-resveratrol were quantified by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization(+)-tandem mass spectrometry. The white sorghum samples contained only traces of trans-piceid (up to 0.1 mg/kg), and trans-resveratrol was absent. In much lower amounts than procyanidins, stilbenoids are not able to contribute significantly to the exceptional antioxidant activity of red sorghum (ORAC, 83-147 ?mol TE/g; AAPH, 0.61-1.79 min/mg kg(-1)). More than 10 mg/kg of total stilbenoids have been reported in some hop varieties. Yet, as hop is a minor wort ingredient as compared to cereals, red sorghum could be the main source of trans-piceid in beer. Hop remains, however, the single source of cis-piceid.

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2. Geera B, Ojwang LO, Awika JM. New Highly Stable Dimeric 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Pigments from Sorghum bicolor Leaf Sheath. J Food Sci. 2012 Apr 10. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02668.x. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22489620

Abstract: The growing interest in natural alternatives to synthetic petroleum-based dyes for food applications necessitates looking at nontraditional sources of natural colors. Certain sorghum varieties accumulate large amounts of poorly characterized pigments in their nongrain tissue. We used High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectroscopy to characterize sorghum leaf sheath pigments and measured the stability of isolated pigments in the presence of bisulfite at pH 1.0 to 7.0 over a 4-wk period. Two new 3-deoxyanthocyanidin compounds were identified: apigeninidin-flavene dimer and apigenin-7-O-methylflavene dimer. The dimeric molecules had near identical UV-Vis absorbance profiles at pH 1.0 to 7.0, with no obvious sign of chalcone or quinoidal base formation even at the neutral pH, indicating unusually strong resistance to hydrophilic attack. The dimeric 3-deoxyanthocyanidins were also highly resistant to nucleophilic attack by SO2; for example, apigeninidin-flavene dimer lost less than 20% of absorbance, compared to apigeninidin monomer, which lost more than 80% of absorbance at ?max within 1 h in the presence of SO2. The increased molecular complexity of the dimeric 3-deoxyanthocyanidins compared to their monomers may be responsible for their unusual stability in the presence of bisulfite; these compounds present new interesting opportunities for food applications.

Keywords: anthocyanin, color stability, 3-deoxyanthocyanin, pigments, sorghum

Practical Application: Natural dimeric pigments concentrated in sorghum sheath retain their hue properties and stability over a wide pH range and should be explored for potential use in mildly acidic to neutral food applications.

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3. Kayodé AP, Nout MJ, Linnemann AR, Hounhouigan JD, Berghofer E, Siebenhandl-Ehn S. Uncommonly high levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and antioxidant capacity in the leaf sheaths of dye sorghum. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Feb 23;59(4):1178-84. Epub 2011 Jan 25. PubMed PMID: 21322653

ABSTRACT: Extracts from leaf sheaths of farmersvarieties of dye sorghum cultivated and used in Benin as a source of biocoloringswere analyzed for their anthocyanidin and phenolic contents, as well as their antioxidant capacity. The aim was to identify andquantify the types of anthocyanin and phenolic acids. The total anthocyanin content of the leaf sheaths ranged from 13.7 to 35.5 mgof cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent/g of dry matter (DM), with an average of 27.0 mg/g. The total anthocyanin content is 90 timeshigher than levels usually reported in fruits and vegetables. Anthocyanin consisted essentially of apigeninidin and luteolinidin, two3-deoxyanthocyanidins with many applications in food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. The apigeninidin content of theleaf sheaths was 30 times higher than that in cereal bran and ranged from 14.7 to 45.8 mg/g, with an average of 31.3 mg/g. Theamount of luteolinidin ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/g, with a mean of 1.2 mg/g. The total phenolic content expressed as gallic acid equivalent averaged 95.5 mg/g. The free phenolic acids identified were benzoic acid,p-coumaric acid, ando-coumaric acid at amounts of 801.4, 681.6, and 67.9?g/g, respectively. The leaf sheaths of dye sorghum have an antioxidant capacity [3.8-5.6 mmolof Trolox equivalent (TE)/g of DM] much higher than that reported for cereal bran and fruits and vegetables.

KEYWORDS: Dye sorghum, apigeninidin, luteolinidin, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, biocolorant, antioxidant capacity

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4. Yang L, Browning JD, Awika JM. Sorghum 3-deoxyanthocyanins possess strong phase II enzyme inducer activity and cancer cell growth inhibition properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Mar 11;57(5):1797-804. PubMed PMID: 19256554

3-Deoxyanthoxyanins (3-DXA) possess unique chemical and biochemical properties and may be useful in helping reduce incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. This study tested sorghum extracts rich in 3-DXA as well as isolated and synthetic 3-DXA for potential to induce activity of phase II enzymes in murine hepatoma cells using the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) assay and to inhibit proliferation of the HT-29 human colon cancer cells using MTT and PicoGreen assays. Crude black sorghum extract that contained high levels of methoxylated 3-DXA was a strong inducer of NQO activity (3.0 times at 50?g/mL), compared to red or white sorghum extracts with low or no methoxylated 3-DXA (1.6 times at 200?g/mL). All sorghum extracts had strong antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cells after 48 h of incubation (IC50)180-557?g/mL). Among isolated fractions,nonmethoxylated 3-DXA were very effective against HT-29 cell growth (IC50)44-68?M at 48 h), but were noninducers of NQO. On the other hand, the methoxylated 3-DXA had both strong antiproliferative activity (IC50<1.5-53?M) and NQO inducer activity (2-3.7 times). Dimethoxylated 3-DXA were more potent than monomethoxylated analogues. Methoxylation of 3-DXA is essential for NQO activity and also enhances tumor cell growth inhibition.

KEYWORDS: Antioxidants; colon cancer; 3-deoxyanthocyanins; phase II enzymes; sorghum

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5. Shih CH, Siu SO, Ng R, Wong E, Chiu LC, Chu IK, Lo C. Quantitative analysis of anticancer 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in infected sorghum seedlings. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jan 24;55(2):254-9. PubMed PMID: 17227050

3-Deoxyanthocyanidins are structurally related to the anthocyanin pigments, which are popular as health-promoting phytochemicals. Here, it is demonstrated that the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins are more cytotoxic on human cancer cells than the 3-hydroxylated anthocyanidin analogues. At 200íM concentration, luteolinidin reduced the viability of HL-60 and HepG2 cells by 90 and 50%, respectively. Sorghum is a major source of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, which are present as seed pigments and as phytoalexins responding to pathogen attack. On the basis of the collision-induced dissociation spectra of luteolinidin and apigeninidin, an LC-MS/MS method, operating in multiple-reaction monitoring mode, was developed for the specific detection and accurate quantification of these compounds in complex mixtures, which may be difficult to analyze using absorbance measurements. The results demonstrated that inoculated sorghum seedlings could be utilized for convenient and large-scale production of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. A quantity of almost 270íg/g (fresh weight) of luteolinidin was produced 72 h after fungal inoculation of 1-week-old seedlings.

KEYWORDS: 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins; Sorghum bicolor; MALDI-TOF; LC-MRM; apigeninidin; luteolinidin

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6. Burdette A, Garner PL, Mayer EP, Hargrove JL, Hartle DK, Greenspan P. Anti-inflammatory activity of select sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brans. J Med Food. 2010 Aug;13(4):879-87. PubMed PMID: 20673059

ABSTRACT: The bran fractions of certain varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grain are rich sources of phytochemicals and antioxidants. In this article, the anti-inflammatory actions of extracts of select sorghum brans were evaluated in two experimental inflammatory systems: (1) the release of cytokines by lipopolysaccharide-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and (2) 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema in mice. A 1:200 dilution of a 10% (wt=vol) ethanol extract of black sorghum bran significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1band tumor necrosis factor-a. Ethanolic extracts of both black and sumac varieties of sorghum bran significantly reduced edema in inflamed ears as measured by ear thickness and ear punch weight 6 hours following TPA application. The degree of inhibition was similar to that observed with indomethacin. Black sorghum bran significantly diminished the increase in myeloperoxidase activity 24 hours following the application of TPA. No anti-inflammatory activity was observed with white and Mycogen sorghum bran varieties or with oat, wheat, or rice brans in the mouse ear model. The anti-inflammatory activity observed with these brans correlated with their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. These results demonstrate that select sorghum bran varieties possess significant anti-inflammatory activity.

KEY WORDS:_cytokines_edema_flavonoids_proanthocyanidins_12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate

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7. Park JH, Darvin P, Lim EJ, Joung YH, Hong DY, Park EU, Park SH, Choi SK, Moon ES, Cho BW, Park KD, Lee HK, Kim MJ, Park DS, Chung IM, Yang YM. Hwanggeumchal sorghum induces cell cycle arrest, and suppresses tumor growth and metastasis through Jak2/STAT pathways in breast cancer xenografts. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40531. Epub 2012 Jul 6. PubMed PMID: 22792362

Abstract

Background: Cancer is one of the highly virulent diseases known to humankind with a high mortality rate. Breast cancer isthe most common cancer in women worldwide. Sorghum is a principal cereal food in many parts of the world, and is critical in folk medicine of Asia and Africa. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of HSE in metastatic breast cancer.

Methodology/Principal Findings: Preliminary studies conducted on MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 xenograft models showed tumor growth suppression by HSE. Western blotting studies conducted both in vivo and in vitro to check the effect of HSE inJak/STAT pathways. Anti-metastatic effects of HSE were confirmed using both MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 metastatic animalmodels. These studies showed that HSE can modulate Jak/STAT pathways, and it hindered the STAT5b/IGF-1R and STAT3/VEGF pathways not only by down-regulating the expression of these signal molecules and but also by preventing their phosphorylation. The expression of angiogenic factors like VEGF, VEGF-R2 and cell cycle regulators like cyclin D, cyclin E, andpRb were found down-regulated by HSE. In addition, it also targets Brk, p53, and HIF-1a for anti-cancer effects. HSE induced G1 phase arrest and migration inhibition in MDA-MB 231 cells. The metastasis of breast cancer to the lungs also found blocked by HSE in the metastatic animal model.

Conclusions/Significance: Usage of HS as a dietary supplement is an inexpensive natural cancer therapy, without any side effects. We strongly recommend the use of HS as an edible therapeutic agent as it possesses tumor suppression, migration inhibition, and anti-metastatic effects on breast cancer.

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8. Wu L, Huang Z, Qin P, Yao Y, Meng X, Zou J, Zhu K, Ren G. Chemical characterization of a procyanidin-rich extract from sorghum bran and its effect on oxidative stress and tumor inhibition in vivo. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Aug 24;59(16):8609-15. Epub 2011 Jul 29. PubMed PMID: 21780844

Abstract

The present study was to characterize a procyanidin-rich extract (PARE) from sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) bran and assess its biological activities. The procyanidin oligomers were separated and identified by normal-phase HPLC equipped with fluorescence (FLD) and mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. In addition, the effects of PARE on oxidative stress in mice induced by D-galactose as well as tumor inhibition in C57BL/6J mice bearing Lewis lung cancer were investigated. Administration of D-galactose significantly (p < 0.05) lowered the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). This was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both liver and serum. Administration of PARE (150 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the d-galactose-induced oxidative stress by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, PARE administration inhibited tumor growth and metastasis formation by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. The results suggested that PARE had antioxidant and antitumor activities.

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9. Awika JM, McDonough CM, Rooney LW. Decorticating sorghum to concentrate healthy phytochemicals. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 10;53(16):6230-4. PubMed PMID: 16076098

The growing prominence of nutrition-related health problems demands strategies that explore nontraditional natural ingredients to expand healthy food alternatives. Specialty sorghums were decorticated using a tangential abrasive dehulling device (TADD) to remove successive bran layers, which were collected at 1 min intervals and analyzed for phenols, tannins, 3-deoxyanthocyanins, dietary fiber, and antioxidant activity. The first two bran fractions had the highest levels of phenols and antioxidant activity (3-6 times as compared to whole grain). Brown (tannin-containing) and black sorghums had at least 10 times higher antioxidant activity than white sorghum or red wheat brans. Black sorghums had the highest 3-deoxyanthocyanin content (up to 19 mg/g bran). Dietary fiber in sorghum brans ranged between 36 and 45%, as compared to 48% for wheat bran. Specialty sorghum brans are rich in valuable dietary components and present promising opportunities for improving health attributes of food.

KEYWORDS: Sorghum; tannins; phenolic compounds; 3-deoxyanthocyanins; natural antioxidants; dietary fiber; functional foods

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10. Okochi,V.I.,Okpuzor J, Okubena M.O., Awoyemi A.K. 2003 . The Influence of African Herbal Formula on the haematological parameters of trypanosome infected rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2 (9), 312-316.

A herbal mixture of herbs code named African Herbal Formula (AFH) influenced the state of anaemia in trypanosome infected rats. Observations showed that the formula has an effect on thehaemopoietic system manifested by a positive increase in the levels of haemoglobin, packed cellvolume and red blood cell while the white blood cell and lymphocyte levels were decreased. AHF also delayed the proliferation of the parasites and improved the level of the characteristic weight lossassociated with trypanosomiasis.

Key words:African Herbal Formula, trypanosomiasis, anaemia.

READ FULL ARTICLE 11. Erah P,O., Asonye C.C. Okhamafe A.O. 2003. Response of trypanosome brucei brucei induced anaemia to a commercial herbal preparation. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2,9, 307-311.

Jubi Formula® is a herbal preparation made from three medicinal herbs (Parquetina nigrescens,Sorghum bicolorandHarungana madagascariensis). It has been reported to have been successfully used in the treatment of anaemia in humans. A study was therefore carried out to determine the effect of the preparation on packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in anaemic rabbits. The PCV and Hb concentrations of healthy rabbits infected withTrypanosoma brucei bruceiwere monitored for 49 days.T. b. bruceiproduced a significant reduction in PCV and Hb concentrations in all infected rabbits when compared with the controls (p<0.05). These hematological parameters were restored to normal levels in the anaemic rabbits by the herbal preparation. The anaemic rabbits not treated with the herbal preparation presented with a progressive decline in their PCV and Hb concentrations and majority of them died before the end of the study. Healthy rabbits that received daily doses of the herbal preparation showed gradual elevation in PCV and Hb concentrations which were maintained within normal range. Jubi Formula® can restore the PCV and Hb concentrations in anaemic conditions and is a potential substitute for blood transfusion. However, further studies are needed to investigate the potentials of the herbal preparation in reversing anaemia.

Key words:Anaemia, PCV, rabbits, haemoglobin, herbal preparation.

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12. Ogwumike OO. Hemopoietic effect of aqueous extract of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor in albino rats. African Journal of Biomedical. Research. (2002): Vol 5; 69 - 71

The effect of an aqueous extract of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor on hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was investigated in 50 albino rats. The rats were in 5 groups of 10 animals per group. The first group is the control and the 4 other groups were the experimental. These latter groups were given oral treatments of the sorghum extract in concentrations of 200mg/kg, 400ng/kg, 800mg/kg and 1,600mg/kg respectively for 16 days. Blood analysis was done at the end of 16 days. The extract of the leaf sheath of sorghum increased in a dose dependent manner Hb (P < 0.05), RBC (P < 0.05), PCV (P < 0.05) and MCH (P < 0.001). It however caused a decrease in MCV (P < 0.05 and MCH (P < 0.05).. The result of this study thus supports the traditional use of sorghum bicolor as a remedy for anemia.

Keywords: Sorghum Bicolor, Leaf Sheaths, Rats, Blood

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13. Oladiji AT, Jacob TO, Yakubu MT. Anti-anaemic potentials of aqueous extract of Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench stem bark in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 22;111(3):651-6. Epub 2007 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 17306481

Abstract

The effects of oral administration of aqueous extract ofSorghum bicolor(L.) Moench stem bark at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight on iron sufficient and iron deficient weaning rats were investigated.Weaning rats of 21 days old were maintained on iron sufficient and iron deficient diets for 6 weeks before the administration of the aqueous extract ofSorghum bicolorstem bark at various doses for 7 days. Proximate analysis of the iron sufficient and iron deficient diets showed that they were similar except in the amount of iron. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins. Extract administration produced significant increase in haemoglobin, packed cell volume and red blood cells in iron sufficient and iron deficient groups (P< 0.05). There was also significant increase (P< 0.05) in the catalase activity of the rat liver and kidney without any significant change (P> 0.05) in the serum catalase activity. The results revealed that extract administration has restored the anaemic condition in the iron deficient group and thus lend credence to its use in folklore medicine in the management of anaemia.

© 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Sorghum bicolor; Iron deficient; Iron sufficient; Anaemia; Aqueous; Catalase

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14 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF A COLOURING MATTER EXTRACT FROM SORGHUM BICOLOR SHEATHS AND ITS APPLICATION TO TEXTILE SUBTRATES

*Gumel, M.S.1 and Ali, U.2

1 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University Kano.

2 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Jigawa state Polytechnic.

ABSTRACT

The colouring matter from the sheath of sorghum bicolor was extracted using ethanol, acetone, water and petroleum ether, respectively. Ethanol exhibited higher extract percentage yield compared to the other solvents with petroleum ether giving the least. The chromatographic analysis indicates that the extract contains only one component which maximally absorbs at 1.78 and 1.58 in ethanol and water, respectively. The extracted colouring matter was applied to cotton, nylon, and wool fabrics with better results obtained on nylon fabric. The use of Potassium Chromate as a mordant however, generally improves the colour yield on the nylon and with improved wash fastness properties in all the fabrics used.

Keywords: Extraction, Investigation, colouring matter, Sorghum bicolor

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15. EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC /POTASH EXTRACT OF SORGHUM BICOLOR LEAF SHEATH ON SERUM ELECTROLYTES, LIVER AND KIDNEY INDICATIVE ON ALBINO RATS

Ogunka-Nnoka, C.U., Uwakwe A.A. and Nnabuike, C.J.

*Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

+Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Toxicity profile on serum electrolytes, hepatic and renal function indices on rats administered with mixture ofethanol/potash extract ofsorghum bicolorleaf sheath were investigated. The ethanol/potash extract was dried and resuspended in distilled water and the following quantities were administered orally to the albino rat per kg body weight: 1000, 2000 and 3000mg; while 0.9% normal saline was served to the control group. The blood was collected through cardiac puncture under chloroform anesthesia after 14 days. There after, the sera were analyzed for sodium (Na+), potassium, (K+),chloride (Cl-) ion, urea, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin and cholesterol levels. Serum sodium levels, (176-297 mmol/L) were significantly (p<0.05) increased following extract treatments, while potassium ion decreased (6.54-4.00mmol/L). The extract increased chloride ion concentration (95.8-99.0mmol/L).

The serum value for creatinine (0.08-0.32mmol/L) and urea (3.16-38mmol/L) increased progressively; whilecholesterol (0.96-0.19mmol/L) and total protein (54.13-17.27g/L) levels, decreased significantly (p<0.05) whencompared to the control values. No significant change was observed in the value obtained for bilirubin except at dose level of 3000mg/kg body weight. There was a progressive decrease in body weight after 14days administration of the extract. The result showed that the mixture of ethanol/potash extract ofsorghum bicolorleaf sheath has been observed in rats under the conditions of this study to be toxic.

Keyword: Sorghum bicolor,ethanol/potash, electrolytes, kidney, liver.

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16. Akande IS, Oseni AA, Biobaku OA. Effects of aqueous extract of Sorghum bicolor on hepatic, histological and haematological indices in rats. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 4(9), 137-142, 2010.

Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75 - 80% of the world population, mainly in the developing countries for primary health care. In Nigeria today, there is an upsurge in the acceptance and utilization of these herbal medicine partly because of scientific support for some of their medicinal uses. In recent times, findings from medicinal plants research indicate that extracts from some plants both hepatotoxic and hematotoxic, while some are reported to possess both hepatoprotective and hemopoietic properties. We investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf sheaths on the biochemical hepatic functions, histological integrity and hematological indices in Sprague-Dawley albino rats. Phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of S. bicolor leaf sheath was carried out. Also, male and female rats (100 – 210 g) and divided into 5 groups were employed for this study. Four groups of 6 rats each were orally administered with 1.0 ml of 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg body weight daily doses of aqueous extract of S. bicolor leaf sheath, respectively for 14 days. The control group consisted of 6 rats treated to a daily dose of 0.5 ml of 0.9% normal saline. At the end of the administration period, the rats were sacrificed; the blood samples were collected through orbital sinus and cardiac puncture. The liver tissues were harvested and used for the hematopoietic and liver functions investigations. Phytochemical analysis of the plant leaf sheath showed the presence of Anthracine glycosides, reducing compounds, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides and polyphenols. Liver function tests revealed that the serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) concentration in the experimental rats showed a significant (P 0.05) increase with the increases in dosage concentrations of the extract compared with the control. Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as the concentrations of total protein and albumin in male and female experimental rats were not significantly (P 0.05) altered compared with the control by the oral administration of the extract. However, red blood cell counts, hemotocrit and haemoglobin concentrations increased significantly (P 0.05) on administration of the extract in both male and female experimental rats compared with the control. Histopathological examination did not reveal any lesion or alteration in the morphological features of the liver tissues in all the animals. Data of the present study indicate that aqueous extract of S. bicolor leaf sheath is both hepatoprotective and hematopoietic in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. These findings are therefore of clinical importance given the various reported medicinal potentials of the plant.

Key words: Sorghum bicolor, liver, rats, aminotransferases, hemoglobin

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17. Nwinyi FC, Kwanashie HO. Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf base for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8 (18), 4642-4649, 2009.

Sorghum bicolor (Family: Gramineae; Poaceae) is used traditionally for some ailments related to pain and inflammation. This study was therefore aimed at investigating possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant. The aqueous methanolic (70% methanol ) extract of the leaf base, its aqueous and ethylacetate fractions were evaluated for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid induced writhing test (test on chemical pain) and tail flick test (test on mechanical pain) in Swiss albino mice. The site for antinociception was determined using formalin test in Wistar rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using egg albumin-induced hind paw oedema in Wistar rats. Acute toxicity studies of all the extracts were also carried out on rats and mice to determine their LD50. The aqueous methanolic extract and its aqueous fraction exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity while the ethylacetate fraction did not show antinociceptive effect. The aqueous methanolic extract showed higher percent pain inhibition in the early phase of formalin test but did not inhibit inflammation. The calculated oral LD 50 value for the aqueous methanolic extract was _ 2000 mg/kg in both mice and rats. In rats, the calculated intraperitoneal LD 50 value 48 h post treatment observation was 1,414.2 mg/kg while in mice, the calculated intraperitoneal LD 50 value was 1341.6 mg/kg for 48 h post treatment time. The intraperitoneal LD50 value for both aqueous and ethylacetate fractions were _ 2000 mg/kg 48 h post treatment. The study revealed that S. bicolor leaf base contains analgesic components which are probably more in the aqueous fraction of the crude extract. This effect appeared centrally mediated. The extract did not show anti-inflammatory property.

Key words: Sorghum bicolor, fractions, antinociception, anti-inflammation, acute toxicity.

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18. Eniojukan JF, Bolajoko AA. Toxicological Profiles of Commercial Herbal Preperation, Jobelyn. International Journal of Health Research, 2(4), 369-374, 2009.

Abstract

PURPOSE: Jobelyn® is a commercial herbal product recommended for the management of anemia related illnesses. Despite its wide use, there is limited report on its toxicological profile. This study examined the acute and short term chronic toxicity profiles of the product with emphasis on the LD50, gross morphological and histopathological effects.

METHODS: Albino mice (mean weight: 16.45±3.14g) were used in this study. For acute toxicity, graded concentrations of Jobelyn® were administered orally and intraperitoneally as single doses to the mice. Intraperitoneal administration of sub-lethal doses daily for 14 days was adopted for the short termchronic toxicity studies.

RESULTS: The LD50 following oral and intraperitoneal administration were 215.06 mg/kg (r = 0.916) and 193.37 mg/kg (r = 0.995), respectively. The major behavioral/ morphological effects at high doses were reduction in motor activity, pilo erection and sedation. The sub-lethal doses did not significantly modify the normal behavioral repertoire of licking, grooming and sniffing. Histopathological examination also did not indicate severe pathological changes. At the lethal doses, some degree of congestion was noticed in thelung, liver splenic and kidney tissues. Short-term chronic studies did not produce further toxic effects but transient mild sedation and pilo erection and histopathological examination revealed only mild congestion in the organs. No death of the animals was recorded during the period of sub-chronic toxicity assessment.

CONCLUSION: Jobelyn® is likely to be safe for use in humans when administered at recommended doses.

Keywords: Jobelyn, safety profile, LD50, toxicity

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19. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2010.

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20. Sorghum Flavonoids: Unusual Compounds with Promising Implications for Health: Joseph M. Awika: Publication Date (Web): November 30, 2011 | doi: 10.1021/bk-2011-1089.ch009

Sorghum contains high levels of a diverse array of flavonoids, many of which are not typically found in other cereal grains. The high levels of compounds like the stable 3-deoxyanthocyanin pigments, proanthocyanidins, flavones, and flavanones in certain sorghum varieties is especially of interest both from a commercial and health perspective. Evidence suggests that the sorghum flavonoids produce specific health benefits that are not observed for other grains like corn, rice, or wheat. For example, epidemiological and laboratory evidence suggest superior chemoprotective properties of sorghum when compared to other grains. Other evidence indicates that sorghum components elicit anti-inflammatory response and other benefits not seen with other grains invitroandin vivo. This chapter reviews the chemistry of the major flavonoids in sorghum, their unusual properties, and potential health benefits.

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21. Comparative antioxidant, antiproliferative and phase II enzyme inducing potential of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties: Joseph M. Awika,*, Liyi Yang, Jimmy D. Browning, Abdul Faraj

3-Deoxyanthoxyanins (3-DXA) possess unique chemical and biochemical properties and may be useful in helping reduce incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. This study tested sorghum extracts rich in 3-DXA as well as isolated and synthetic 3-DXA for potential to induce activity of phase II enzymes in murine hepatoma cells using the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) assay and to inhibit proliferation of the HT-29 human colon cancer cells using MTT and PicoGreen assays. Crude black sorghum extract that contained high levels of methoxylated 3-DXA was a strong inducer of NQO activity (3.0 times at 50?g/mL), compared to red or white sorghum extracts with low or no methoxylated 3-DXA (1.6 times at 200?g/mL). All sorghum extracts had strong antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cells after 48 h of incubation (IC50)180-557?g/mL). Among isolated fractions, nonmethoxylated 3-DXA were very effective against HT-29 cell growth (IC50)44-68?M at 48 h), but were noninducers of NQO. On the other hand, the methoxylated 3-DXA had both strong antiproliferative activity (IC50<1.5-53?M) and NQO inducer activity (2-3.7 times). Dimethoxylated 3-DXA were more potent than monomethoxylated analogues. Methoxylation of 3-DXA is essential for NQO activity and also enhances tumor cell growth inhibition.

KEYWORDS: Antioxidants; colon cancer; 3-deoxyanthocyanins; phase II enzymes; sorghum

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22. Quantitative Analysis of Anticancer 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins in Infected Sorghum Seedlings: Chun-Hat Shih, Siu, Ricky Ng, Elaine Wong, Lawrence C. M. Chiu, Ivan K. Chu, and Clive Lo: J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (2), 254-259 • DOI: 10.1021/jf062516t

3-Deoxyanthocyanidins are structurally related to the anthocyanin pigments, which are popular as health-promoting phytochemicals. Here, it is demonstrated that the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins are more cytotoxic on human cancer cells than the 3-hydroxylated anthocyanidin analogues. At 200íM concentration, luteolinidin reduced the viability of HL-60 and HepG2 cells by 90 and 50%, respectively. Sorghum is a major source of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, which are present as seed pigments and as phytoalexins responding to pathogen attack. On the basis of the collision-induced dissociation spectra of luteolinidin and apigeninidin, an LC-MS/MS method, operating in multiple-reaction monitoring mode, was developed for the specific detection and accurate quantification of these compounds in complex mixtures, which may be difficult to analyze using absorbance measurements. The results demonstrated that inoculated sorghum seedlings could be utilized for convenient and large-scale production of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. A quantity of almost 270íg/g (fresh weight) of luteolinidin was produced 72 h after fungal inoculation of 1-week-old seedlings.

KEYWORDS: 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins; Sorghum bicolor; MALDI-TOF; LC-MRM; apigeninidin; luteolinidin

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23. Anthocyanins from black sorghum and their antioxidant properties: Joseph M. Awika *, Lloyd W. Rooney, Ralph D. Waniska: Cereal Quality Laboratory, Soil and Crop Sciences Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474, USA

Abstract

A black, high anthocyanin sorghum variety (Tx430) grown in several environments was analyzed for anthocyanins by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The samples were also analyzed for antioxidant activity using the 2,20-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiaziline- 6-sulfonic acid) method. Two extracting solvents, 1% HCl in methanol and 70% aqueous acetone, were compared.

Sorghum brans had three to four times higher anthocyanin contents than the whole grains. The brans were a good source of anthocyanin (4.0–9.8 mg luteolinidin equivalents/g) compared to pigmented fruits and vegetables (0.2–10 mg/g), fresh weight basis.

Acidified methanol extracted the anthocyanins better than aqueous acetone. Luteolinidin and apigeninidin accounted for about 50% of the anthocyanins in the black sorghums. The sorghum grains and their brans had high antioxidant activity (52–400lmol TE/g) compared to other cereals (<0.1–34 mg TE/g). Black sorghum should be useful in food and other applications, because it is a valuable source of anthocyanins with good antioxidant activity.

_2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:Sorghum; Anthocyanins; Antioxidant activity; HPLC; ABTS

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24. Grain Sorghum Lipid Extract Reduces Cholesterol Absorption and Plasma Non-HDL Cholesterol Concentration in Hamsters1,2: Timothy P. Carr,*3 Curtis L. Weller,†** Vicki L. Schlegel,** Susan L. Cuppett,**: David M. Guderian, Jr.,* and Kyle R. Johnson*

ABSTRACT

Grain sorghum is a rich source of phytochemicals that could potentially benefit human health. In thisstudy, male hamsters were fed AIN-93M diets supplemented with a hexane-extractable lipid fraction from grainsorghum whole kernels. The grain sorghum lipids (GSL) comprised 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, or 5.0% of the diet by weight. After4 wk, dietary GSL significantly reduced plasma non-HDL cholesterol concentration in a dose-dependent mannerwith reductions of 18, 36, and 69% in hamsters fed 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0% GSL, respectively, compared with controls.Liver cholesteryl ester concentration was also significantly reduced in hamsters fed GSL. Plasma HDL cholesterolconcentration was not altered (P_0.05) by dietary treatment. Cholesterol absorption efficiency was significantlyreduced by GSL in a dose-dependent manner. Cholesterol absorption was also directly correlated with plasmanon-HDL cholesterol concentration (r_0.97,P_0.05), suggesting that dietary GSL lowers non-HDL cholesterol,at least in part, by inhibiting cholesterol absorption. TLC and GLC analyses of the GSL extract revealed thepresence of plant sterols and policosanols at concentrations of 0.35 and 8.0 g/100 g GSL, respectively. Althoughplant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption, policosanols may inhibit endogenous cholesterol synthesis. The datasuggest that these components of GSL extract may work collectively in lowering plasma and liver cholesterolconcentrations. Our findings further indicate that grain sorghum contains beneficial components that could be usedas food ingredients or dietary supplements to manage cholesterol levels in humans. J. Nutr. 135: 2236–2240, 2005.

KEY WORDS:?grain sorghum?plant sterols?policosanols?cholesterol?hamsters

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25. Identification of 3- deoxyanthocyanins from red sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) bran and its biological properties: P.Suganya Devi 1*, Dr.M.Saravanakumar2 and Dr.S.Mohandas3

Anthocyanins known as potent antioxidant provides attractive colours and used as an ingredient in food systems. This study aims to evaluate a potential anthocyanin extraction method from red sorghum bran and to investigate its antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. The anthocyanin content was found to be higher in acidified methanol and on separation was identified as apigeninidin and leuteolinidin, which obviously could attribute to its antioxidant properties and cytotoxic activity. Anthocyanins are natural pigments used as food additives and known for its potent antioxidant and antiproliferative property. In addition to their potential as food colorants, anthocyanins are nowadays regarded as an important nutraceuticals mainly due to their possible antioxidant effects and they have been given a potential therapeutic role related to some cardiovascular diseases, cancer treatment, inhibition of certain types of virus including Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) and improvement of visual acuity (Stintzing et al., 2002; Talavera et al., 2006; Sandvik et al., 2004; Beattie et al., 2005; Jang et al., 2005; Cooke et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 1997; Nakaishi et al., 2000). This study aims to evaluate anthocyanin content, to analyze antioxidant and antipropliferative activity from red sorghum bran.

When acidified methanol was used as a solvent for extraction, maximum amount of anthocyanin was obtained as compared to methanol alone. On separation by Thin Layer Chromatography and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, the compounds were identified as apigenindin and luteolindin. The antioxidant activity was found to be higher in red sorghum bran. Anthocyanin from red sorghum bran also showed moderate cytotoxic activity against HT 29 and HEP G2 cell lines. Is assumed that the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the extract from red sorghum bran was due to apigenindin and luteolindin. So the anthocyanins extracted from easily available red sorghum bran would be a valuable source for antioxidant and antiproliferative activity in food industry.

Key words: Bran, sorghum, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, high pressure liquid chromatography, DPPH, HT 29 cancer cell line, HEP G2 cancer cell line.

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26. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench :Vijaya1*, N. Sarada mani1 and Varaprasad Bobbarala2

Abstract

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour(L) Monech) is the fifth leading cereal crop in the world and is used primarily in Asia and Africa as food crop.Sorghumis an economically important food crop, it is also used for treatment of several ailments like cardiovascular health, reduce the risk of certain types of cancer and reduce obesity in humans. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of Acetone-water extract from eight genotypes of sorghum were estimated by three different methods. The percentage inhibition of superoxide, hydroxyl and lipid peroxidases were maximum at 100, 300, 1200 µg respectively. The percentage of inhibitions increased with increasing concentrations of extract. Of the eight genotypes, IS-2695 shown maximum of 64.99% inhibition for superoxide radical and the genotype IS-7155 was shown maximum inhibition in hydroxyl, lipid peroxides 67.92% and 82.06% in this order. Significant differences were obtained among the genotypes when the antioxidant activity of the each genotype subjected to a two-way ANOVA.

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27. Myths About Sorghum Tannins: Lloyd Rooney, Regents Prof. & Faculty Fellow, C. McDonough, Research Scientist, and L. Dykes, Research Associate Cereal Quality Lab, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474 USA

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28. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use: Mamoudou H. Dicko1,2,3*, Harry Gruppen2, Alfred S. Traoré1, Alphons G. J. Voragen2 and Willem J. H. van Berkel3

Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum processing. Phenolic compounds are quality-grade markers for the preparation of several foods because of enzyme inhibitory activities, color, or antioxidant activities. Large intervarietal differences in contents of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activities among sorghum varieties exist. Moreover, some red sorghum varieties have higher antioxidant activities than the most important sources of natural antioxidants. Oxidation products of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase (benzoquinones and polymeric compounds) affect food quality. This paper reviews the current advances in phenolic compounds and phenolic enzymes in sorghum as human food, with emphasis on nutritional and health aspects. This may provide some guidance for researchers in further Investigations and for industries in developing practical health agents and functional foods.

Key words: sorghum, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase.

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29. Review : Sorghum and millet phenols and antioxidants Linda Dykes_, Lloyd W. Rooney

Abstract

Sorghum is a good source of phenolic compounds with a variety of genetically dependent types and levels including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and condensed tannins. Most sorghums do not contain condensed tannins, but all contain phenolic acids. Pigmented sorghums contain unique anthocyanins that could be potential food colorants. Some sorghums have a prominent pigmented testa that contains condensed tannins composed of flavan-3-ols with variable length. Flavan-3-ols of up to 8–10 units have been separated and quantitatively analyzed. These tannin sorghums are excellent antioxidants, which slow hydrolysis in foods, produce naturally darkcolored products and increase the dietary fiber levels of food products. Sorghums have high concentration of 3-deoxyanthocyanins (i.e. luteolinidin and apigenidin) that give stable pigments at high pH. Pigmented and tannin sorghum varieties have high antioxidant levels that are comparable to fruits and vegetables. Finger millet has tannins in some varieties that contain a red testa. There are limited data on the phenolic compounds in millets; only phenolic acids and flavones have been identified.

Keywords:Sorghum; Millet; Phenols; Phenolic acids; 3-Deoxyanthocyanins; Condensed tannins; Antioxidants; Health benefits

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30. Study finds that Sorghum bran has more antioxidants than blueberries

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/09/100913100449.htm

31. CHEMOPREVENTIVE POTENTIAL OF SORGHUM WITH DIFFERENT PHENOLIC PROFILES: A Thesis by LIYI YANG

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32. COLOR STABILITY OF SORGHUM 3-DEOXYANTHOCYANINS AGAINST SULFITE AND ASCORBIC ACID DEGRADATION; pH INFLUENCE: A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School at the University of Missouri-Columbia

https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/4913/research.pdf?sequence=3

33. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2

http://www.orac-info-portal.de/download/ORAC_R2.pdf

34. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods: Release 3

http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/Flav/Flav_R03.pdf

35. NUTRACEUTICAL USES OF SORGHUM BRAN (SORGHUM BICOLOR): By AMY L. BURDETTE

(Under the Direction of Phillip Greenspan) http://www.nulifemarket.com/media/files/nutraceutical_uses_of_sorghum_bran-amy_burdette.pdf

36. EVALUATION OF ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF SORGHUMS WITH DIFFERENT: GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND LEVELS OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS: A Dissertation by SARA GUAJARDO FLORES

http://repository.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2745/GUAJARDO-FLORES-DISSERTATION.pdf?sequence=1

37. Extraction of antioxidant pigments from dye sorghum leaf sheaths

A.P.P. Kayodé a,*, C.A. Bara a, G. Dalodé-Vieira a, A.R. Linnemann b, M.J.R. Nout ca Département

Extraction of antioxidant biocolorant pigments from leaf sheaths of dye sorghum was optimized. Effects of temperature and ethanol concentration of the extraction solvent on the concentrations of the 3- deoxyanthocyanidins, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, and the colour parameters of the biocolorantextractwere evaluated using the response surface methodology. Extraction parameters affected the extraction rate of the biocolorant pigments and the colour characteristics of the extract. Maximum pigment yields were obtained at 50_C and an ethanol concentration of the solvent of 51 mL 100 mL_1. Addition of HCl (1 mL 100 mL_1) to the solvent significantly improved the extractability of the bio colorant pigments. The crude extract from the leaf sheaths showed high antioxidant capacity with a total antioxidant capacity of 1026 mg of Trolox equivalent (TE) g_1 of DM._2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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38. Mutagenesis Breeding for Increased 3‑Deoxyanthocyanidin Accumulation in Leaves of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench: A Source of Natural Food Pigment
Carloalberto Petti,† Rekha Kushwaha,† Mizuki Tateno,† Anne Elizabeth Harman-Ware,‡ Mark Crocker,‡ Joseph Awika,§ and Seth DeBolt*,†

ABSTRACT: Natural food colorants with functional properties are of increasing interest. Prior papers indicate the chemical suitability of sorghum leaf 3-deoxyanthocyanidins as natural food colorants. Via mutagenesis-assisted breeding, a sorghum variety that greatly overaccumulates 3-deoxyanthocyanidins of leaf tissue, named REDforGREEN (RG), has been isolated and characterized. Interestingly, RG not only caused increased 3-deoxyanthocyanidins but also caused increased tannins, chlorogenic acid, and total phenolics in the leaf tissue. Chemical composition of pigments was established through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that identified luteolinidin (LUT) and apigeninidin (APG) as the main 3-deoxyanthocianidin species.
Specifically, 3-deoxyanthocianidin levels were 1768 μg g−1 LUT and 421 μg g−1 APG in RG leaves compared with trace amounts in wild type, representing 1000-fold greater levels in the mutant leaves. Thus, RG represents a useful sorghum mutagenesis variant to develop as a functionalized food colorant.
KEYWORDS: Sorghum bicolor, anthocyanin, flavonoids, lignin, mutant, food colorant, 3-deoxyanthocyandin

 

39. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench
Vijaya1*, N. Sarada mani1 and Varaprasad Bobbarala2
1Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, India.
2For U Biosciences, A/4A, Park lane Residency, East point colony, Visakhapatnam, A.P-17, India.

ABSTRACT
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L) Monech) is the fifth leading cereal crop in the world and is used primarily in Asia and Africa as food crop.
Sorghum is an economically important food crop, it is also used for treatment of several ailments like cardiovascular health, reduce the risk of certain types of cancer and reduce obesity in humans. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of Acetone-water extract from eight genotypes of sorghum were estimated by three different methods. The percentage inhibition of superoxide, hydroxyl and lipid peroxidases
were maximum at 100, 300, 1200 μg respectively. The percentage of inhibitions increased with increasing concentrations of extract. Of the eight genotypes, IS-2695 shown maximum of 64.99% inhibition for superoxide radical and the genotype IS-7155 was shown maximum inhibition in hydroxyl, lipid peroxides 67.92% and 82.06% in this order. Significant differences were obtained among the genotypes when the antioxidant activity of the each genotype subjected to a two-way ANOVA.

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40. Red Card for Pathogens: Phytoalexins in Sorghum and Maize Alana Poloni and Jan Schirawski

       Abstract: Cereal crop plants such as maize and sorghum are constantly being attacked by agreat variety of pathogens that cause large economic losses. Plants protect themselves against pathogens by synthesizing antimicrobial compounds, which include phytoalexins.

In this review we summarize the current knowledge on phytoalexins produced by sorghum
(luteolinidin, apigeninidin) and maize (zealexin, kauralexin, DIMBOA and HDMBOA).
For these molecules, we highlight biosynthetic pathways, known intermediates, proposed
enzymes, and mechanisms of elicitation. Finally, we discuss the involvement of phytoalexins
in plant resistance and their possible application in technology, medicine and agriculture.
For those whose world is round we tried to set the scene in the context of a hypothetical
football game in which pathogens fight with phytoalexins on the different playing fields
provided by maize and sorghum.

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41. Sorghum: An Underutilized Cereal Whole Grain with the Potential to Assist in the Prevention of Chronic Disease: ANITA STEFOSKA-NEEDHAM1, ELEANOR J. BECK1, STUART K. JOHNSON2, AND LINDA C. TAPSELL1

 Abstract:

Sorghum is an important cereal grain food, grown globally, that is rich in nutrients, dietary fiber, and bioactive components yet is considered of low value to humans and often used as an animal feed. This review provides an overview of key sorghum grain components, including starches, dietary fiber, protein, lipids, and phytochemicals, with functional properties that have potential to impact on health. Though acknowledging
the impact of the whole food will reflect the synergy between the components, studies of these components implicate effects on energy balance, glycemic control, lipids, gut microbiota, and cell-mediated immune responses, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. For these to be confirmed as contributory effects from sorghum consumption, evidence from quality randomized controlled trials is required.  If proven
effective, there may be a role for sorghum grain–based diets to assist in the prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and heart disease. Future research addressing effects of sorghum consumption may help drive a paradigm shift from sorghum as a low value food to a potentially health-promoting, highly valued human grain food.
Keywords Cereal, Health, Nutrition, Sorghum, Whole grain

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 42. Introduction

A highly successful health food company in the United States, Silver Plate Inc, is seeking to cash in on the health benefits of sorghum. More particularly, it has begun to commercialize foods rich in sorghum anthocyanins, natural “antioxidant” chemicals found in some strongly coloured plant foods that are believed to have heart and other health benefits.

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43. Pigment Characterization in Grain Sorghum.pdf

44. Phytoalexin synthesis by the sorghum mesocotyl in response to infection by pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungi, 

  1. RALPH L. NICHOLSON, SHARON S. KOLLIPARA, JEFFREY R. VINCENT, PHILIP C. LYONS,
    AND GABRIEL CADENA-GOMEZ
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907

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45.  Sorghum: Nutrition Attributes and Health Benefits Research UpdateNancy D. Turner Associate Professor of Nutrition, Food Science and Genetics Texas A&M University, College Station

Large chronic disease problem
•>26 million with Heart Disease, >610,000 deaths
•>29 million with Diabetes
•1,660,290 new Cancer diagnoses each year, >580,000 deaths
•142,820 colorectal cancer cases, > 50,000 deaths
•1.4 million with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
•In excess of 2 million suffer from Celiac Disease
CDC, 2013,

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46. Nutritional and antioxidant dispositions of sorghum/millet-based beverages indigenous to Nigeria

Abstract
Sorghum/millet-based beverages, Obiolor and Pito, were evaluated for their nutritional and antioxidant dispositions. Analyzed Obiolor and Pito contained 96% and 97% moisture; 7.8% and 3.7% crude protein; 8.9% and 5.6% available carbohydrate; 0.39% and 0.31% crude fat; 0.3% and 0.2% crude fiber; 2.4% and 1.5% ash; and 459.3 and 164 kJ/g energy value, respectively. Obiolor and Pito (1.0 mL) scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl by 87% and 81%; superoxide ion by 65% and 59%; hydrogen peroxide by 79% and 76%; and hydroxyl radical by 82% and 85%, respectively. The beverages significantly reduced ferric ion. Aflatoxin B1-mediated increase in lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, and malondialdehydes) and protein carbonyl in the microsomes were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by the beverages. The data obtained from this study show that the sorghum-based beverages (Obiolor and Pito) can serve as functional foods, as evident from their antioxidant capabilities in addition to their gross energy content

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47. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SORGHUM BICOLOR LEAF WITH ANTI SICKLING ACTIVITY by KELSEY GUSTAFSON

Sorghum bicolor is an important cereal and a staple crop in Africa, where it has been used traditionally by healers for the treatment of anemia and other health conditions. Interest in the plant typically focuses on the grain, but the leaves have recently been used in combination with three additional plants in the phytomedicine Nicosan, approved in Nigeria for the treatment of sickle cell disease. The ingredients of Nicosan were later found to be reducible to S. bicolor leaf and this new formula is currently under investigation for potential use in the treatment of sickle cell disease in the United States. In this research, both the raw botanical and the active botanical extract of S. bicolor leaf were chemically characterized as a first step in the standardization of a phytomedicine using a combination of various chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, including normal pressure chromatography, LC/UV/MS, and NMR methods. For standardization of the botanical materials, the characterized major compounds were quantitated using LC/UV/MS methods developed. In order to evaluate the safety of the phytomedicine, an analytical method for determination of the toxic cyanogenic glycoside dhurrin was also developed and validated. The results showed that the raw botanical contains high levels
of dhurrin, but complete degradation of dhurrin occurred during the extraction process of the phytomedicine. To ensure the absence of cyanide, the breakdown product of dhurrin, cyanide content was analyzed using inorganic anion derivatization and GC/MS. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize a promising phytomedicine, which may provide relief to the debilitating pain suffered by patients with sickle cell disease.

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